Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology
Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale
Sedef Çelik Demirci 1 * , Ümit Kul 1, Eyüp Sevimli 2
More Detail
1 Artvin Çoruh University, Turkey
2 İstanbul Medeniyet University, Turkey
* Corresponding Author
Open Access Full Text (PDF)

Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 2023 - Volume 5 Issue 2, pp. 92-104

Article Type: Research Article

Published Online: 31 Aug 2023

Views: 365 | Downloads: 340

Mathematics education research often emphasizes beliefs as a key construct. Accordingly, beliefs about mathematics are significantly associated with difficulties encountered during the process of teaching and learning mathematics. The current study aims to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Mathematics Teachers’ Beliefs Scale [MTBS], which was developed by Xie and Cai (2021). In addition to encompassing five distinct types of beliefs about mathematics, the scale is designed specifically for the beliefs of mathematics teachers in regard to mathematics. Using a 4-point Likert scale, a 26-item belief survey was administered to 259 middle and high school mathematics teachers. This scale was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis to verify its underlying factor structure. Six items were subsequently removed for lack of validity and reliability based on the collected data. Therefore, a final version of the MTBS with 20 items was developed. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure of the scale was acceptable as measured by the Cronbach alpha internal consistency value and goodness-of-fit indices. As a result of the research findings, the Turkish version of the MTBS can be considered a valid and reliable measurement tool. Adapted scale may be able to measure five types of beliefs by Turkish mathematics teachers. Taking gender and years of teaching experience into consideration, the results indicated that teachers' mathematical beliefs didn't change significantly.
In-text citation: (Çelik Demirci et al., 2023)
Reference: Çelik Demirci, S., Kul, Ü., & Sevimli, E. (2023). Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 5(2), 92-104.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Çelik Demirci S, Kul Ü, Sevimli E. Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2023;5(2), 92-104.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Çelik Demirci S, Kul Ü, Sevimli E. Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2023;5(2):92-104.
In-text citation: (Çelik Demirci et al., 2023)
Reference: Çelik Demirci, Sedef, Ümit Kul, and Eyüp Sevimli. "Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology 2023 5 no. 2 (2023): 92-104.
In-text citation: (Çelik Demirci et al., 2023)
Reference: Çelik Demirci, S., Kul, Ü., and Sevimli, E. (2023). Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 5(2), pp. 92-104.
In-text citation: (Çelik Demirci et al., 2023)
Reference: Çelik Demirci, Sedef et al. "Turkish adaptation of the Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Scale". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, vol. 5, no. 2, 2023, pp. 92-104.
  • Akyıldız, P., & Dede, Y. (2019). A Belief Questionnaire about the Nature of Mathematics for Turkish Preservice Mathematics Teachers: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences (AUJES), 9(1), 69-98.
  • Alfaro Víquez, H., & Joutsenlahti, J. (2021). Mathematical beliefs held by costa rican pre-service teachers and teacher educators. Education Sciences, 11(2), 70.
  • Alpar, R. (2018). Uygulamalı istatistik ve geçerlilik-güvenirlik: SPSS’de çözümleme adımları ile birlikte [Applied statistics and validity-reliability: with analysis steps in SPSS]. Detay Publishing.
  • Aydın, S. (2014). The comparison of the knowledge of mathematics for teaching, beliefs and learning opportunities of preservice elementary mathematics teachers among universities in terms of TEDS-M results [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon.
  • Barkatsas, A. T., & Malone, J. (2005). A typology of mathematics teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning mathematics and instructional practices. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 17(2), 69-90.
  • Barlow, A. T., & Cates, J. M. (2006). The impact of problem posing on elementary teachers’ beliefs about mathematics and mathematics teaching. School Science and Mathematics, 106(2), 64–73.
  • Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modelling: Adjudging model fit. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 815–824.
  • Basım, H. N. & Şeşen, H. (2006). An adaptation and comparison of organizational citizenship behavior scale. Ankara University SBF Journal, 61(4), 83-101.
  • Beswick, K. (2012). Teachers’ beliefs about school mathematics and mathematicians’ mathematics and their relationship to practice. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 79(1), 127–147.
  • Bollen, K. A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 17(3), 303-316.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2018). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı istatistik, araştırma deseni SPSS uygulamaları ve yorum [Data analysis handbook for social sciences statistics, research pattern spps applications and interpretation ]. Pegem Academy Publishing.
  • Carter, G., & Norwood, K. S. (1997). The relationship between teacher and student beliefs about mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 97(2), 62-67.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4rd ed.). Sage.
  • Cross, D. I. (2009). Alignment, cohesion, and change: Examining mathematics teachers’ belief structures and their influence on instructional practices. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 12(5), 325–346.
  • Dede, Y., & Uysal, F. (2012). Examining Turkish preservice elementary teachers’ belief about the nature and nature the teaching of mathematics. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(12), 125-135.
  • Delice, A., Erden, S., Yılmaz, K., & Sevimli, E. (2016). Adaptation of mathematics beliefs scale to turkish: validity and reliability studies. Kastamonu Education Journal, 24(2), 737-754.
  • Duatepe-Paksu, A. (2008). Comparison of teachers' beliefs about mathematics in terms of branch and gender. Hacettepe University Journal of Education Faculty, 35, 87-97.
  • Ernest, P. (1989). The knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of the mathematics teacher: A model. Journal of Education for Teaching, 15(1), 13–33.
  • Goldin, G., Rösken, B., & Törner, G. (2009). Beliefs: no longer a hidden variable in mathematical teaching and learning processes. In Maab, J. & Schlöglmann, W. (Eds.). Beliefs and attitudes in mathematics education. New research results. (pp. 1-18). Sense Publishers.
  • Guillemin, F., Bombardier, C. & Beaton, D. (1993). Cross-cultural adaptation of health related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46(12),1417–1432.
  • Güven, B., Karataş, İ., Öztürk, Y., Arslan, S., & Gürsoy, K. (2013). A study of scale development on determination of pre-service and in-service teachers’ beliefs about preschool mathematics education. Elementary Education Online, 12(4), 969-980.
  • Hacıömeroğlu, G. (2012). Adaptation of the mathematics belief scale into Turkish. Çukurova University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 21(3), 175-184.
  • Hacıömeroğlu, G. (2011). Turkish adaptation of beliefs about mathematical problem solving instrument. Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Journal of Education Faculty, 17, 119-132.
  • Handal, B. (2003). Teachers’ mathematical beliefs: A review. The Mathematics Educator, 13(2), 47–57.
  • Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). Sage.
  • Jamieson-Proctor, R. & Byrne, C. (2008). Primary teachers’ beliefs about the use of mathematics textbooks. In M. Goos, Brown, R., & K. Makar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA31) (pp. 295-302). Merga.
  • Kayan, R., Haser, Ç., & Işıksal Bostan, M. (2013). Preservice mathematics teachers’ beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning mathematics. Education and Science, 38(167), 179–195.
  • Kloosterman, P., & Stage, F.(1992). Measuring beliefs about mathematical problem solving. School Science and Mathematics, 92, 109-105.
  • Kul, Ü. (2017). Matematik ve sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının matematiğe yönelik inanışlarının incelenmesi [Examination of preservice mathematics and primary school teachers’ beliefs towards mathematics]. Studies in Educational Research and Development, 1(1), 109-131.
  • Kul, U., & Çelik, S. (2017). Exploration of pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs in relation to mathematics teaching activities in classroom-based settings. International Journal of Research in Education & Science, 3(1), 245-257.
  • Kunter, M., Baumert, J., Blum, W., Klusmann, U., Krauss, S., & Neubrand, M. (2013). Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers. Results from the COACTIV project. Springer.
  • Leplege, A., & Verdier, A. (1995). The adaptation of health status measures: Methodological aspects of the translation procedure. In S. A. Shumaker and R. Berzon (Eds.), The international assessment of health-related quality of life: Theory, translation, measurement and analysis (pp. 93-101). Rapid Communication of Oxford.
  • Li, Q. (1999). Teachers' beliefs and gender differences in mathematics: A review. Educational Research, 41(1), 63-76.
  • Li, Q. (2004). Beliefs and gender differences: A new model for research in mathematics education. Interchange, 35(4), 423–445.
  • Liljedahl, P. (2008, March). Teachers’ beliefs as teachers’ knowledge [Paper presentation]. Symposium on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of ICMI, Rome.
  • Liljedahl, P. (2010). Noticing rapid and profound mathematics teacher change. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 13(5), 411-423.
  • Liljedahl, P., Rösken, B., & Rolka, K. (2021). Changes to preservice elementary teachers’ beliefs about mathematics and the teaching and learning of mathematics: How and why? Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation, 4(1), 20–30.
  • Marcoulides, G., & Schumacher, R. (2001). New developments and techniques in structural equation modelling. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • McLeod, D. B. (1992). Research on affect in mathematics education: A reconceptualization. In D. A.Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on Mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 575-596). Machmillan Publishing.
  • Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19(4), 317–328.
  • Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.
  • Paksu, A. D. (2008). Comparing teachers‟ beliefs about mathematics in terms of their branches and gender. H.U. Journal of Education, 35, 87-97.
  • Peterson, P. L., Fennema, E., Carpenter, T., & Loef, M. (1989). Teachers’ pedagogical content beliefs in mathematics. Cognition and Instruction, 6, 1–40.
  • Philipp, R. A. (2007). Mathematics teachers’ beliefs and affect. In F. K. Lester Jr. (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: A project of the national council of teachers of mathematics (pp. 257–315). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics & Information Age Publishing.
  • Raymond, A.M. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teacher’s mathematics beliefs and teaching practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5), 550-576.
  • Seçer, İ. (2015). SPSS ve LISREL ile pratik veri analizi, analiz ve raporlaştırma [Practical data analysis, analysis and reporting with SPSS and LISREL]. Anı Publishing.
  • Sigel, I. E. (1985). A conceptual analysis of beliefs. In I. E. Sigel (Eds.), Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children (pp.345-371). Erlbaum.
  • Speer, N. (2005). Issues of methods and theory in the study of mathematics teachers’ professed and attributed beliefs. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58(3), 361-391.
  • Staub, F. C., & Stern, E. (2002). The nature of teachers’ pedagogical content beliefs matters for students’ achievement gains: Quasi-experimental evidence from elementary mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 344–355.
  • Swan, M. (2006). Designing and using research instruments to describe the beliefs and practices of mathematics teachers. Research in Education, 75, 58-70.
  • Tatto, M. T., Peck, R., Schwille, J., Bankov, K., Senk, S. L. Rodriguez, M., … Rowley, G. (2012). Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics in 17 countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
  • Twohill, A., NicMhuirí, S., Harbison, L., & Karakolidis, A. (2023). Primary preservice teachers’ mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs: The role played by mathematics attainment, educational level, preparedness to teach, and gender. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 21(2), 601-622.
  • Uysal, F., & Dede, Y. (2019). Examining mathematics teachers’ mathematical beliefs according to their teaching experience. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 8(4), 1102-1129.
  • Uysal, F., & Dede, Y. (2021). Mathematics teachers’ mathematical beliefs based on their gender. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Education Faculty, 38(1), 215-237.
  • Wang, Y., Qin, K., Luo, C., Yang, T., & Tao, X. (2022). Profiles of Chinese mathematical teachers’ teaching beliefs and their effects on students’ achievement. ZDM Mathematics Education, 54(3), 709-720.
  • Xie, S., & Cai, J. (2021). Teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, learning, teaching, students, and teachers: Perspectives from Chinese high school inservice mathematics teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19, 747-769.
  • Zhang, Q. (2022). Understanding Chinese mathematics teaching: How secondary mathematics teachers’ beliefs and knowledge influence their teaching in mainland China. ZDM Mathematics Education, 54(3), 693–707.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.