Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology
Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students
Usani J. Ofem 1 * , Sylvia V. Ovat 2, Hyacinth Ntah 3, Mercy I. Ani 1, Emeka Nwinyinya 1
More Detail
1 Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2 University of Calabar, Nigeria
3 Avan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Nigeria
* Corresponding Author
Open Access Full Text (PDF)

Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 2024 - Volume 6 Issue 2, pp. 78-97

Article Type: Research Article

Published Online: 23 Apr 2024

Views: 407 | Downloads: 268

The purpose of this study was to model a pathway using affective variables to predict academic achievement in Mathematics among students. Causal –comparative research design with a total of 739 students were used for the study. Multivariate statistical techniques- multiple regression and path analysis procedures were used for data analysis. The result showed that all the variables combined had a strong effect in predicting achievement in Mathematics. The result indicated that the most meaningful causal model had thirteen significant pathways and that 68.22% of the total effect of the affective variables in predicting achievement in Mathematics were direct while 31.69% were indirect. It was also revealed that all the six affective variables directly impacted students ‘achievement in Mathematics. Learners’ sociability and academic optimism were found to contribute most significantly to the prediction of students’ achievement in Mathematics. The implications of the study were discussed, and policy suggestions made.
In-text citation: (Ofem et al., 2024)
Reference: Ofem, U. J., Ovat, S. V., Ntah, H., Ani, M. I., & Nwinyinya, E. (2024). Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 6(2), 78-97.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ofem UJ, Ovat SV, Ntah H, Ani MI, Nwinyinya E. Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2024;6(2), 78-97.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ofem UJ, Ovat SV, Ntah H, Ani MI, Nwinyinya E. Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2024;6(2):78-97.
In-text citation: (Ofem et al., 2024)
Reference: Ofem, Usani J., Sylvia V. Ovat, Hyacinth Ntah, Mercy I. Ani, and Emeka Nwinyinya. "Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology 2024 6 no. 2 (2024): 78-97.
In-text citation: (Ofem et al., 2024)
Reference: Ofem, U. J., Ovat, S. V., Ntah, H., Ani, M. I., and Nwinyinya, E. (2024). Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 6(2), pp. 78-97.
In-text citation: (Ofem et al., 2024)
Reference: Ofem, Usani J. et al. "Modelling achievment in mathematics: The predictive role of affective variables among students". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2024, pp. 78-97.
  • Abtalic, W. & Nadri, P. (2012). The relationship between creativity, academic adaptability, and academic achievement of high school students in Zanjan city. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 1(1), 6-13.
  • Adeyemi, A.M. & Adeyemi, S.B. (2014). Personal factors as predictors of students’ academic achievement in colleges of education in Southwestern Nigeria. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(4), 97-109.
  • Agolla, A. & Ongori, E. (2009). Occupational stress in universities: Students’ perceptions academic workload. Journal of Educational Scientific Research, 15(1), 53-72.
  • Akpan, I. D. & Umobong, M. E. (2013). Analysis of achievement motivation and academic engagement of students in the Nigerian classroom. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 385.
  • Anaduaka, S. & Okafor, C. (2013) Nigerian School Children and Mathematics Phobia: How the Mathematics Teacher Can Help. American Journal of Educational Research. 1(7), 247-251.
  • Ariëns, U. (2001). The relationship between time management behaviours, perceived effectiveness and academic distress in a university context. Higher Education Research and Development, 26(2), 235-247.
  • Asuquo,, P.N., Enukoha, O.I., & Inaja, A. E. (2004). Philosophy of education. NIVS Publishers.
  • Benabole, R., & Tiwle, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Review of Economic Studies, 70, 489-520.
  • Bhajet, D. (2013). Students of low academic achievement – their personality, mental abilities and academic performance: how counsellor can help? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(23) 7-18.
  • Burge , T. (2009). Perceptual Objectivity , Notebook
  • Busato, V. V., Prins, F. J., Elshout, J. J., & Hamaker, C. (2000). Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1057-1068.
  • Chuanping, L. (2009). Causal Attribution of academic achievement in college students. Journal of Asia Social Sciences, 8(5), 23-38.
  • Denhardt, R. B. (2008). Managing human behavior in public and nonprofit organizations. Sage.
  • Devi, I. (2015). Academic adaptability and academic achievement among tribal adolescents in Manipur. Journal of Social Studies, 2(2), 143-165.
  • Emmanuel, A. O., Adom, E. A., Josephine, B., & Solomon, F. K. (2014). Achievement motivation, academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school students. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 2(2), 24-37.
  • Eric, A. & Forkuoh, M. (2014). A Study of Causal Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics among Brazilian Students. Inter-American Journal of Psychology, 38(1), 53-60.
  • Farid, M. F., & Iqbal, H. M. (2012). Causal attribution beliefs among school students in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(2), 411–424.
  • Foldman, B. (2005). Management and organizational behaviour. Journal of Social Research, 2(4), 12-30.
  • Försterling, F. (2001). Attribution: An introduction to theories, research, and applications. Psychology Press.
  • Gang-Chang, X. (2005). Study on undergraduates social adaptation situation in different social supporting types. Journal of Chinese Health Psychology, 10, 1248-1250.
  • Gbettor, A., Danku, L. & Soglo, N. (2015). Stress and academic achievement: empirical evidence of business students in a Ghanaian Polytechnic. Journal of Educational Research, 2, 245-266.
  • Goldstein, S. & Brooks, R. B. (2007). Understanding and managing children’s classroom behaviour. Wiley & Sons.
  • Green, J., Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2007). Academic motivation and engagement: a domain specific approach. Self Research Centre, University of Western Sydney.
  • Habibollah, N., Rohani, A. H., Tengku, A. & Jamaluddin, S. (2009). Creativity, age and gender as predictors of academic achievement among undergraduate students. Journal of American Science, 5(5), 102-105.
  • Hoogendoorn., B. (2000). Occupational stress, burnout and job status in female academics, Gender, work and organisations. Journal of Research 5, 67-68.
  • Hoy, K.W., Tarter, C.J., & Hoy, A.W. (2006). Academic optimism of schools: a force for student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 43, 425-446.
  • Irsa, F., Saba, G., & Adnan, A. (2012). Impact of achievement goals, sociability and gender on academic achievement of university students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 38(2), 13-29.
  • Isaacowitz, D. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2001). Is pessimism a risk factor for depressive mood among community-dwelling older adults? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 255-272.
  • Jones, R. D. (2008). Strengthening student engagement. International Center for Leadership in Education.
  • Joshua, M. & Joshua , A. (2011).Psychological factors and academic achievement in Mathematics. Journal of Educational Research, 3, 1-7.
  • Kaplan, S. & Sadock, P. (2000). Predictors of academic stress among undergraduate students in private universities. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(3), 313.
  • Kivimäki, E. (2002). Stressors and stress reactions among university personnel. International Journal of Stress Management, 9, 289-310.
  • Kris A., Prathibha J., Christian, N. & Annette, R. (2014). The impact of sociability on college academic performance and retention of native Americans. Journal of American Indian Education, 53(1), 210-238.
  • Kumar, D. (2012). Academic achievement of high school students in relation to certain personality traits. International Multidisciplinary e – Journal, 2(1), 23-38.
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer.
  • Lin, C. D., Yang, Z. L., & Huang, X. T. (2004). The comprehensive dictionary of psychology. Shanghai Education Publishing House.
  • MacGeorge A., Samter, E. & Gillikan, T. (2005). Emotional intelligence, achievement motivation and academic achievement among students of the public and private higher institutions. The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, 9(4), 135-144.
  • Martin, A. J. (2009). The motivation and engagement scale. Lifelong Achievement Group.
  • Martin, A. J. (2010). Girls, achievement motivation, and the glass ceiling. implications for personal potential. Lifelong Achievement Group.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. Harper and Row.
  • McGuigan, A. & Hoy, P. (2006) Emotional intelligence influence on academic performance in public universities. International Journal of Academic Research in Public Policy Governance, 3(2), 1901-1921.
  • Ministry of Education. (2014). National policy on education. FGN printing.
  • Moyosola, J. A. (2013). Personality characteristics as predictors of academic performance of secondary school students. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 12-30.
  • Muola, J. M. (2010). A study of the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5), 213-217.
  • Ofem ,U., Iyam, M., Ovat, S., Nwogwugwu, C., Anake , P., Udeh, M & Otu B. (2024). Artificial Intelligence (AI) in academic research. A multi-group analysis of students’ awareness and perceptions using gender and programme type. Journal of Applied Teaching and Learning, 7(1), 1-17.
  • Oyerinde, T. (2004). Academic stressors and coping strategies in Schools. Journal of Social Research, 1(3), 76-88.
  • Proudfoot, J, G., Corr, P. J., Guest, D. E., & Gray, J. A. (2001). The development and evaluation of a scale to measure occupational attributional style in the financial service sector. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 259-270.
  • Rajni, S. & Gartia, P. (2012). Relationship between stress and academic achievement of senior secondary school students. Journal of Personality, 77, 231-260.
  • Rathus, H. (2000). Stress in academic life: The role of counsellors. UNICAL Press.
  • Raymona, K. B. (2010). The effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement in Alabama [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Alabama, Alabama.
  • Savas B., & Ilyas, Y. (2010). Investigating causal attributions of success and failure on mathematics instructions of students in Turkish high schools. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1940–1943.
  • Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219–47.
  • Selye, H. (1975). Stress and distress. Comprehensive Therapy, 1(8), 9-13.
  • Singh, I. & Jha, A. (2013). Anxiety, optimism, and academic achievement among student of private medical and engineering colleges: A comparative study. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 222-233. 10.5539/jedp.v3n1p222
  • Sjøberg, S., Schreiner, C. & Stefansson, K. (2004). The voice of the learners: International perspectives on S&T based on the ROSE project [Paper presentation]. XIth Symposium of IOSTE: Science and Technology Education for a Diverse World -dilemmas, needs and partnerships, Lublin, Poland.
  • Slavin, D. (2006). The educational psychology: theory into practice. Prentice Hall.
  • Stewart, C., Bachman, C. & Johnson , R. (2010). Students’ characteristics and motivation orientations for online and traditional degree programs. Available from
  • Tella, A. (2007). The impact of motivation on students’ academic achievement and learning outcomes in mathematics among secondary school students in Nigeria. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 3(2), 149-165
  • Tingyoung, J. & Hong, Y. (2006). An analysis of academic adaptability status of medicine freshmen, northwest. Medical Education, 10(1), 37-48.
  • Umoinyang, I.E. (1999). Students’ socio-psychological factors as determinants of achievement in senior secondary school Mathematics [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Undorbuoye, G. A. (2015). Gender difference, mathematics attitude, personality variables and senior secondary school students’ mathematics achievement in Cross River State, Nigeria [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
  • Wayne K. H., Tarter, C. J., & Anita, W. H. (2015). Academic optimism of schools: a force for student achievement. Advanced Journal of Educational Research, 4(3), 11-23.
  • Weiner, B. (2005). Motivation from an attribution perspective and the social psychology of perceived competence. In Elliot, A. J & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp.73-84). Guilford Press.
  • Wilson, T. D., Damiani, M., & Shelton, N. (2002). Improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 89-108). Academic Press.
  • Wong, P. & Weiner, B. (1981). When people ask “why” questions, and the heuristics of attributional search. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 650-663.
  • Wood, W. (2002). Sunday guide for the world of psychology. Allyn and Bacon.
  • Zenzen, O. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70, 6-20.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.