Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology
A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada
Thomas G. Ryan 1
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1 Nipissing University, Ontario, Canada
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Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 2023 - Volume 5 Issue 3, pp. 131-140
https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212

Article Type: Research Article

Published Online: 20 Oct 2023

Views: 297 | Downloads: 134

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this naturalistic observation study was to observe in a natural setting, the actions of elementary level students during recesses to better understand student behaviour. Three different students were observed each 20-minute recess and the recorded behaviors produced data that revealed activity or lack of each recess. Recess, an informal period where students at the elementary level in grades kindergarten through eight were observed playing, communicating or being inactive, proved surprising. 432 (18 observations per session x 12 sessions x 2 schools) direct observations led to facts and conclusions that recess was a time to communicate with others while moving in various physical ways that exposed distinct patterns of play (games), walking, standing (idleness), individuality and group cohesion. Generally, students were engaged in play that was informal, spontaneous, and active which is a pragmatic outcome that builds upon our knowledge of recess in elementary schools.
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In-text citation: (Ryan, 2023)
Reference: Ryan, T. G. (2023). A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 5(3), 131-140. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ryan TG. A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2023;5(3), 131-140. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ryan TG. A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology. 2023;5(3):131-40. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
In-text citation: (Ryan, 2023)
Reference: Ryan, Thomas G.. "A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology 2023 5 no. 3 (2023): 131-140. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
In-text citation: (Ryan, 2023)
Reference: Ryan, T. G. (2023). A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 5(3), pp. 131-140. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
In-text citation: (Ryan, 2023)
Reference: Ryan, Thomas G. "A naturalistic study of elementary recess in Canada". Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, vol. 5, no. 3, 2023, pp. 131-140. https://doi.org/10.33902/jpsp.202321212
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.